It would appear that there was medical oversight on the facility as the following year it was announced that “the Lady of Staff-Surgeon Murray” gave birth to a daughter.. Wilson wrote a series of papers in the Lancet in which he claimed that much of the medical profession did not appreciate that the skin was an important organ capable of affecting the rest of the body. the work would probably have been undertaken by the prisoners themselves. This was not sufficient in the ‘court of public opinion’ and flogging eventually became an issue during the 1880 election.  The use of all corporal punishment in the army was abolished as part of the 1881 Childers Reforms. Flogging was removed by an amendment to the Indian Army Act in 1920. The Times recorded its disappointment in the decision of the House of Commons and hoped to soon see the army governed without flogging during peace. The ‘alternatives’ considered included – placing a man in irons, fastening him to a horse or wagon to be dragged on through a day’s march, or to carry a burden for a certain period. Fort Clarence was first used to accommodate “unfortunate persons belonging to the army who were afflicted with insanity”. Jewish lawlimited flagellation to forty strokes…  The fact that this latter group compared a school beating with a military flogging suggests they didn’t understand what it really involved. AND FLOGGING IN THE ARMY OF. This could be one of the reasons that Arthur Otway who had serviced Chatham and Rochester as an MP, decided to lead on its abolition.  Wilson found that White's internal organs were inflamed, he described this as a direct result of the flogging and a contributory factor to White's death.  Flogging sentences were restricted to 25 lashes in 1879, by which time the punishment was little used. ATTEMPTS TO ABOLISH BRANDING. , In order to ensure the spiritual needs of the prisoners were met tenders were invited for the building of a chapel at the Fort. A symbiotic relationship between deer and jackdaws, The story of a slave trader – Geoff Rambler's weird and wonderful Kent, Medway’s Anti-Vaccinators of national prominence – Geoff Rambler's weird and wonderful Kent. from the lash and the rattan came approximately 40 years after flogging had been abolished for the British soldier by the Army Discipline and Regulation Act, 1881.3 This article examines two distinct features of Indian military law during the high noon of empire: the Summary Court-Martial (SCM), introduced experimentally in the 1860s and formal Later in the century a private was flogged to death despite the suggested maximum being fifty lashes at that time v. , The outcome of the inquest led to arguments in the medical press over the cause of death. The outcome of the inquest led to arguments in the medical press over the cause of death. Of particular concern was the use of the lash in prisons which were beyond public scrutiny. What escaped public scrutiny were other features such as the SCM, a harsher scale of punishment and collective fines for loss of military property which continued to distinguish the Indian Army Act from the British Army Act. He stated that Wellington had ordered that all soldiers sentenced to be flogged be examined by medical professionals to check they were fit to be so punished and that the weather conditions at the time be taken account of. Equally barbaric alternatives to flogging were considered.  The cat was swapped for a fresh one after 100 lashes at which point White asked the farriers to strike "lower, lower", whereupon they adjusted their aim.  A ballad named The Flogging Excitement at Hounslow, that argued the cause for abolition, was popular around the time of the inquest. Thirteen jurors were sworn in and the inquest attended by officers of the regiment and members of the public.  Clark insisted that the regiment's adjutant, Ireland, be present throughout the inquest as he was his instructing party. , Wakley's inquest first met on 15 July from 8 pm in the parlour of the George IV Inn on Hounslow Heath. By Richard L. Blanco. , Critton made the first strokes with the cat, alternating with Farrier Evans after each 25 or 50 lashes (the sources vary) to rest their arms.  Wakley discovered that the army had made no effort to contact White's next of kin and ajourned the inquest at 10 pm to allow time for family members to be found, for Day's autopsy to be carried out and for Reid and Hall to be called to testify. The abolition of flogging becomes an election issue. There had been a total abolition of flogging during peace time but it remained ‘available’ when the army was on active service. Branding was finally abolished in 1879, just before flogging in 1881. In January 1861 there was a report of a prisoner at Fort Clarence being sentenced to 50 lashes.  First Class Staff Surgeon John Hall was called to attend White on the order of Sir James McGrigor. , Wilson reported that the inflammation caused by the flogging penetrated the full depth of the skin. In June 1819 a number of men with mental health issues were transferred to Clarence from Fort Pitt, Chatham. However, in the absence of a Sanhedrin, corporal punishment is not practiced in Jewish law. , Frederick John White was a soldier in the 7th (The Queen's Own) Regiment of (Light) Dragoons (Hussars) (commonly known as the 7th Hussars), born in January 1819 and originating from Nottingham. Warren did not intervene to check on White at any point during the punishment. The Liberals won the election with a large majority – returning Arthur Otway as one of the members for Rochester.  He denied making a statement, reported by a witness in the hospital, that White had died from the effects of the flogging.  After being read the decision of the court-martial White was stripped to the waist and tied by his arms and legs with cord to a ladder which was nailed to the wall at the open side of the square. The view was though that these punishments were as degrading as the one it aimed to replace – and open to abuse. 11 June 1819, Cambridge Chronicle and Journal. He was opposed at the time by the usual posh parasites that persist in Britain. In 1807 the suggested maximum number of lashes was reduced to 1000, whilst flogging in the range of 300 to 700 lashes was usual iv.  His back was inflamed and his skin was cold and moist. This was another step in the right direction but corporal punishment was still being used in peace time. A court-martial sentenced him to 150 lashes with a cat of nine tails. The last of these, carried out by Erasmus Wilson, reported that White's death was a direct result from the flogging. Warren returned at 10 pm to examine White's back which was wounded in an area around 6 inches (15 cm) in height and 4–5 inches (10–13 cm) in width between his shoulder blades. Britain’s Royal Navy was notorious for its harsh discipline and for good reason. A solicitor, Mr G Clark, attended to represent the 7th Hussars. It would seem that the change in the approach to discipline introduced by the Duke of Cambridge had had a more positive affect on improving discipline that the lash.  On 11 July White lost sensation in his extremities and had difficulty passing urine. Since a good many sailors in the 17 th, 18 th and early 19 th centuries were pressed into service unwillingly, a firm hand was often needed to keep the crews in line. The condemned would be whipped with a cat-o’-nine-tails, a whip with nine (sometimes) waxed knotted tails.When a sailor was to be flogged, he would be kept in leg irons on the upper deck …  However the vote was subsequently overruled by the minority Conservative government that held the view that a majority of one could not be taken as being the will of the house; the Government therefore ruled that the “usual clause would be introduced into the Mutiny Bill authorising the inflection of corporal punishment in certain cases”.  Day dissented with Wilson's findings on the grounds that he did not consider that the pleura could be affected by the muscles. Jesus was flogged before he was crucified.  No requests for tenders to build an ‘extension’ have been found but if building work was needed to accommodate 300 prisoners the work would probably have been undertaken by the prisoners themselves. 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